[BDSP. Notice produite par INIST-CNRS R0x9JkFl. Diffusion soumise à autorisation]. Low vitamin D status is common globally and is associated with multiple disease outcomes. Understanding the correlates of vitamin D status will help guide clinical practice, research, and interpretation of studies. Correlates of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) concentrations measured in a single laboratory were examined in 4,723 cancer-free men and women from 10 cohorts participating in the Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers, which covers a worldwide geographic area. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were examined in relation to 25 (OH) D using stepwise linear regression and polytomous logistic regression. The prevalence of 25 (OH) D concentrations less than 25 nmol/L ranged from 3% to 36% across cohorts, and the prevalence of 25 (OH) D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L ranged from 29% to 82%. Seasonal differences in circulating 25 (OH) D were most marked among whites from northern latitudes. Statistically significant positive correlates of 25 (OH) D included male sex, summer blood draw, vigorous physical activity, vitamin D intake, fish intake, multivitamin use, and calcium supplement use. Significant inverse correlates were body mass index, winter and spring blood draw, history of diabetes, sedentary behavior, smoking, and black race/ethnicity. Correlates varied somewhat within season, race/ethnicity, and sex. These findings help identify persons at risk for low vitamin D status for both clinical and research purposes.